How to Assess the Genome-phiaping (Morphologic, Epidemiological, and Clinical) Risk of Persons With Chronic Illnesses
A person is a political subdivision or group of people constituted into a community or polity. The members of a people are collectively defined by nationality, ethnicity, race, or social grouping and have an identity, a cultural and linguistic inheritance, but also have the freedom to select their political institutions, determine their identity, and enjoy certain privileges. A political community is ruled by a government that represents or governs the interests of the majority of citizens living in the polity. The political institutions of a people have evolved through time in response to the need of the community to define its interests and derive legal rights from the governing institution. In most cases, representatives of the people meet together to deliberate on the important issues facing the society, formulate rules for governing themselves, and decide upon the administration of public affairs.
The majority of people do not know much about the minority groups living within their nation. Many do not know much about the history or the culture of different peoples in the nation. As a result, young people often have a lack of information about cultural diversity present in the nation. Many do not know much about the history or the language of other cultures other than their own. This creates the unique situation of being a minority within a nation that does not speak the language of the majority, cannot read its own or write its history, and knows little about other cultures. As a result, many young people are alienated and frustrated with their national and cultural identities.
The United States system of government has historically relied on the discretion of judges to assign crime victims and criminals to different ethnic groups and categories. This is done based on statistical data about crime rates within various regions of the country. However, in order to classify crime according to ethnicity, judges must rely on documentary evidence presented by experts in forensic science, criminology, mathematics, history, anthropology, and sociology. It is not enough for a judge to find a person guilty of a given crime, if they fail to provide documentary proof of the crime.
Ethnicity may also affect healthcare providers and researchers. In the past, medical research was primarily conducted by doctors from the same ethnicities, which caused problems for researchers who wanted to test new treatments without bias. Some examples include studies concerning the relationship between ethnicity and chronic pain. Doctors from one ethnic group were found to be less likely to prescribe pain-killers for patients with chronic pain than doctors from another ethnic group. Researchers were unable to conclude whether this was due to a decreased risk of contracting chronic pain, or a decreased likelihood of receiving care from a high-risk ethnic group.
An increasing number of healthcare providers are working with patients and families to identify the risk factors for health issues, and then work to reduce those risks. One challenge is getting accurate data. According to healthcare providers and researchers, even when patients’ ethnic backgrounds are known, it can still be difficult to assess the true exposure to genetic or environmental risk factors. For example, it may be more common for an ethnic group to experience a serious illness at higher rates than another, but that doesn’t mean that the illness is more prevalent in that group. An accurate estimation of the true exposure requires using statistical methods such as multivariate analysis and case-control studies.
Another challenge is getting accurate data on health history. Ethnicity, race, gender, age, and years of employment are all potential confounders of the true exposure to genetic or environmental risk factors. This means that when a healthcare provider wants to make an accurate estimate of the true exposure of his or her patient to genetic or environmental risk factors, he or she should use a well-established technique known as case-control studies. Using case-control studies helps healthcare providers get a clearer picture of the true genetic or environmental risks of a patient’s underlying medical conditions poses. By using appropriate statistical techniques, a healthcare provider is better equipped to make the correct estimates of genetic or environmental risks.